An Introductionary Guide to Steampunk

 

Multimedia eLearning essay by: David Anthony Johanson  © All Rights

Steampunk is a wonderfully curious subculture — percolating with creative optimism, healthy playfulness — an inventive postmodern science fiction genre, which blends Victorian era, 19th Century alternative history with contemporary technology.

Goggles are a popular accessory for Steampunk practitioners.

Goggles are a popular accessory for Steampunk practitioners

A sub-genre of science fiction — Steampunk appears as if caught in some strange time warp. The practitioners of this loosely knit community of post-industrialist feature Victorian era clothing along with accessories such as goggles, intricate antique jewelry incorporating watch gears and a wide spectrum of retro-futuristic attachments.

Steampunk has remained under the radar of mainstream media, which is surprising since it’s one of the fastest growing cultural trends in recent memory! Now reaching the tipping point, this curious lifestyle movement is beginning to influence mainstream media, major retail and fashion labels.

Hand crafted, often one of a kind Steampunk jewelry is sold by vendors at the festival.

Hand crafted, often one-of-a-kind Steampunk jewelry is sold by vendors at the festival.

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Hand crafted, repurposed products, which uses wood, glass, and metal (especially brass) are associated with the Steampunk movement. Manufactured plastic materials are rejected and viewed with contempt at Steampunk social gatherings.

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Steampunk Etymology   

Steam_punk_Fairhaven_BPP_2013_w 10Although SP is a postmodern hybrid genre, Victorian era writers associated with its original inspiration are: H G Wells, Jules Verne and Mary Shelly. These 19th Century, vanguard novelist inspired future generations of science fiction writers, which throughout the 20th Century created new genres of their own.

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Steampunk is not directly associated with the British Royal Monarchy of Queen Victoria (ruled from 1837 until 1901). The Victorian era is a convenient time reference for what symbolizes the advancements made during the Industrial Revolution. Steam_punk_Fairhaven_BPP_2013_w 8

This era had the greatest technological developments of the 19th Century, including: massive agricultural output, wide distribution of railway systems, steam turbine engines (for world commerce and travel.), development and wide scale utilization of electrical power, telecommunications including ( telegraph, telephone and wireless radio) and the automobile’s internal combustion engine.

Steam_punk_Fairhaven_BPP_2013_w 11Regarding western social economics, the Victorian era sees for the first time, a middle class emerges, which establishes an expanding consumer based society. Food production increase due to new agricultural technology and distribution, therefore allowing a rapid growth of population within the western world. Trade unions are allowed to flourish leading to greater protection for workers, including women and children. Human rights in general make huge advancements as slavery is eliminated in most of Europe and North America.

The actual term Steampunk derives from the science fiction genre — cyberpunk, which emerged in the early 1980s. In 1987, science fiction author K. W. Jeter, sent a letter to science fiction magazine Locus — using the term, ‘steam-punks’, he coined the phrase for a newly developing science fiction genre, which was inspired by Victorian fantasies.                    

Steampunk vendor shows off his hand crafted wares.

Steampunk vendor shows off his hand crafted wares.

Finding Steampunk Festival Events

When I first attended Western Washington University in Bellingham, I marveled at its charming neighborhood of Farhaven — a historic district with Victorian and Edwardian style brick architecture. A couple of summers ago I returned to Fairhaven in mid-July to go sightseeing. To my delight the first Fairhaven Steampunk Festival was in full swing and provided the photos used for this article.

Historic Fairhaven District has many fine examples of late 19th century architecture, including this multilevel wooden stairway

The Historic Fairhaven District has many fine examples of late 19th century architecture, including this multilevel wooden stairway

Beautifly proportioned brick buildings make for an ideal backdrop for a steampunk fesitival.

Beautifully proportioned brick buildings make for an ideal backdrop for a Steampunk festival.

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STEAMPUNK Personas

Scientist —

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Aristocrat —

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Adventure / Travelor —

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Steampunk Umbrellas —

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Steampunk Hats —

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Steampunk Cinema & Television

A partial list of films which have Steampunk elements or themes

Metropolis – Fritz Lang Director (1927)

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea – Starring Kirk Douglas (1954)

Wild, Wild, West – CBS Television Series (1965-69)

City of Lost Children – Starring Ron Perlman (1995) 

Wild, Wild, West – Starring Will Smith, Kevin Kline & Salma Hayek (1999)

The league of Extraordinary Gentlemen – Starring Sean Connery (2003)

Steamboy – Japan’s most expensive animated film ever made, 10 year production (2004)

Golden Compass -Starring Nicole Kidman (2007 Film)

Sherlock Holmes 2: A Game Of Shadow – Starring Robert Downey Jr. (2011)

 

Learn More About Steampunk By Clicking On These Links

The Nine Novels That Defined Steampunk | The Steampunk Workshop

What is Steampunk? | Steampunk.com

HowStuffWorks “How Steampunk Works”

What is Steampunk? History and Culture that Define Steampunk

A History of Steampunk, Part 1 – Definitions | Jay Kristoff – Literary Giant

Steampunk – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Why Defining Steampunk Is Worthwhile « Steampunk R&D

What Is Steampunk?

Steampunk Scholar: Defining Steampunk

Steampunk 101 | Tor.com

Get Ready for Mainstream Steampunk | 5 Reasons You’ll Be Talking About Steampunk in 2013 | TIME.com

Steampunk Magazine

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How Did Rome’s Vitruvius, Become The World’s First Subject Matter Expert (SME) on Architecture?

An example of a variety of architectural styles influenced by Vitruvius. Florence, Tuscany Region, Italy.  Photo by: David A. Johanson ©

An example of a variety of architectural styles influenced by Vitruvius. Florence, Tuscany Region, Italy. Photo by: David A. Johanson ©

Multimedia eLearning essay by: David Anthony Vasquez © All Rights    

To see an alternative graphic view of this essay please visit: www.ScienceTechTablet.wordpress.com  

If you would like to experience some ancient Roman music while viewing this essay, open one more browser and click on the  Roman music link provided below (Synaulia III, has Latin signing and soothing melodies)

Architecture is the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by man for whatsoever uses, that the sight of them contributes to his mental health, power and pleasure. Aphorism 4All architecture proposes an effect on the human mind, not merely a service to the human frame.  — From John Ruskin’s – The Seven Lamps of Architecture  ————————————————————————————————

The first historic footnote on Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, was not of his role as an architect —but for his military engineering service for another overachiever, Julius Caesar.

The floor plans from a Greek House - Vitruvius. Peterlewis - wikipedia project - image free to use with no copyright restrictions

The floor plans from a Greek House – Vitruvius. Peter Lewis – Wikipedia project – image free to use with no copyright restrictions

Vitruvius first job description involved being in charge of a Roman legion’s heavy artillery —the terrifying Ballista or catapult. Ironically, this future architectural genius was responsible for destroying opposing structures that came before his weapons of mass destruction. You could say, Vitruvius, literally had a major impact on architecture throughout the arc of his careers.Rome_Soldier_BPP_eg100_0129 Vitruvius’ date of birth is recorded around 90 B.C. and apparently the recipient of a broad-minded education — science, mathematics, drawing, music, law, rhetoric and history. He is believed to have apprenticed with a Greek architect, which gave Vitruvius the basic foundation and qualifications for becoming a subject matter expert (SME) on architectural principles.

A series of columns lined a walkway at the Herculanieum site, Italy.

A series of columns line a walkway at the Herculaneum site, Italy.

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Vitruvian Man by Leonardo de Vinci was named after & inspired by VitruviusThis work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo de Vinci was named after & inspired by Vitruvius. – This work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.

It’s speculated at the time Vitruvius began circulating his writing, wealthy Roman citizen’s private libraries were accessible to him for specialized study in architecture and engineering.

An upheaval caused by the Empire’s civil and foreign wars channeled Vitruvius’ professional direction towards engineering military machinery. It may have seemed like an irony to him that his skills were being used to occasionally destroy architecture, rather than create it.

Contrary to popular belief, the Romans liberally used color & brick instead of marble. Herculaneum, Italy.

Contrary to popular belief, the Romans liberally used color & brick instead of marble.  Herculaneum, Campania Region, Italy.

Opportunity Opens A Door For Vitruvius’ Career In Architecture

Following the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., Vitruvius found employment with Caesar’s nephew and successor — Octavian. Another decade of Roman civil war and the eventual defeat of Marc Anthony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C., led to a Pax Romana (Latin for “Roman peace.”)

Julius Caesar's father-in-law residence - Villa of Papyri is located at Herculanieum, which was buried with Pompei from Mount Vesuvius seen in the upper center of the frame.

Julius Caesar’s father-in-law residence – Villa of Papyri is located at Herculaneum, which was buried along with the city of Pompeii in 79 A.D., by the volcano Vesuvius, seen in the upper top frame.

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With Octavian as the undisputed ruler of the Empire, he was granted the title, Augustus the Emperor of Rome. Augustus channeled Rome’s wealth towards cultural, civic and public works development. This reinvestment for Rome’s glory, eventually gave Augustus bragging rights, as he is quoted, ‘I found Rome built of bricks; I leave her clothed in marble.’ Augustus’ civic benevolence finally created an opportunity for Vitruvius’ great engineering and architectural contributions to move forward.

An example of Roman ingenuity is in using brick for most of a buildings construction, then a facade  of marble or limestone is applied, followed by vibrant color applications.

An example of Roman ingenuity is in using brick for most of a building’s construction, then a facade of marble or limestone is applied and finally followed by vibrant color applications.

White outline of architectural structure show where the colors were applied — from inside a residence at Herulaneum  site, Italy.

The white outline of the architectural structure show where the colors were applied — from inside a residence at Herulaneum site, Italy.

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As the saying goes — behind every great man there is a great woman. It’s Augustus’ sister, Octavia, who sponsors Vitruvius to write the architectural treatise. 

Interior of residence in Herculaneum. Mosaics were used to bring the outside world indoors.

Interior of residence in Herculaneum. Mosaics were used to bring the outside world indoors.

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Officially, the Books of Architecture are dedicated to Augustus, who uses them wisely to help create a marvelous metropolis.

Mosaic tile in the ancient port city of Ostia Antica, Lazio Region, Italy.

Mosaic tile in the ancient port city of Ostia Antica, Lazio Region, Italy.

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Vitruvius, throughout his career keeps a low profile, perhaps due to observing what envy and jealousy could inflict on the Romans who attempted to shine too brightly.

Statue in the ancient port city of Ostia Antica, next to the Tevere River, Italy.

Statue in the ancient port city of Ostia Antica, next to the Tevere River, Italy.

Cross section of Coliseum

Cross section of Coliseum. This two-thousand year old stadium is still in use today, with major music concerts & various events open to the public.

Past Nonconforming Standards In Architecture Threatens Rome’s Renovations.

In antiquity, Hellenistic Greek architecture sets the standard for beauty, quality and form. The Greeks, inspired by much older civilizations established near the Mediterranean, refined architecture to its classical ideal. However, precious little had been written down regarding the styles and standards of Greek architecture, until Vitruvius ambitious efforts were realized.

Ionic capital on a Roman colum

Ionic capital on a Roman column

As a result of non conforming standards, instructional integrity of buildings could suffer with disastrous consequences, as well as the aesthetic beauty of religious, civic and private buildings.

Ruins at Ostia Antica, Italy.

Ruins at Ostia Antica, Italy.

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3D, computer generated image of the Roman Forum Image Created by: Lasha Tskhondia - Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 - Some Rights Reserved.

Roman Forum                                                                      3D, computer generated image 
Image Created by: Lasha Tskhondia – Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 – Some Rights Reserved.

Vitruvius realizes the great advantages and value of researching classic Greek architectural techniques and styles. By developing a comprehensive series of books on the methods and theories of architecture — ancient Roman, as well as contemporary architecture greatly benefit from Vitruvius vision of recording the science, art and history of architecture.

Rome's Forum

Rome’s Forum

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Cross section of Rome's Forum

Cross section of Rome’s Forum

Remains of Rome's Forum

Remains of Rome’s Forum

How Did Rome’s Vitruvius, Become The World’s First Subject Matter Expert (SME) on Architecture? —More to be uploaded on Vitruvius in the coming days.

Links to learning more on Vitruvius

http://blogs.nd.edu/classicalarch/2012/09/28/many-canons-many-conversions/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitruvian_Man http://www.bostonleadershipbuilders.com/vitruvius/

How about some ancient Roman music to brighten your day? Click on the link provided below ↓ (if you’d like to hear this Roman music while reading the essay, open a new browser window to play the music and use the original browser window to read the essay.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X83IYWmcEFg&list=RD020MwBCorqBW0 ——————————————————–

Is Space Law Really That Far Over Your Head?

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  Multimedia Essay By: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights  

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 Part 1 of 2 Editions  – To view an alternative graphic format see: 
Science Tech Tablet | A site dedicated to technology, science and learning.
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Look upwards toward the sky on the next clear day or cloudless night and behold the new legal frontier unfold before your eyes. A mere 65 miles above sea-level, our atmosphere and gravity dwindles into space, where satellites begin to glide silently over Earth’s thin atmosphere. Only a fraction of human history has passed since man-made satellites were far and few between — but that time has since slipped away, replaced by an ever tightening metal jacket of used and disregarded manufactured, celestial artifacts. Almost at the start of the space race, “Space Law” was launched and it’s had an uphill battle to catchup with the unforeseen consequences of humanity’s reach for the heavens.

The German V-2 rocket was a sophisticated liquid propellant rocket, which first entered outer-space in 1942.
The German V-2 rocket was a sophisticated liquid propellant rocket, which first entered outer-space in 1942.

At times, defining what Space Law is or does is a nebulous task. This new form of law can be so abstract and full of contradictions that it resembles an art, rather than a science. Like creating a massive sculpture, it’s often a process which involves slow progress — developing over time through stages of careful analysis and discernment. Space Law will continue to transform itself by maturing, developing refinements and taking on new dimensions as needed.

There are basically three forms of law, which make up Space Law: 1.) Regulatory Law – sets standards which must be met for securing authority to launch a rocket vehicle.  2.) Tort Law – concerns damages which occur as a result of debris from rocket launch accidents or space and terrestrial impacts from orbital debris. 3.) Common Law – could be applied to circumstances relating to a private entity’s negligence, which causes damage from its orbital debris.

Back To Rocket Science Basics.

The basic blueprint for all modern rockets used in today’s space programs originated from the American physicist, Dr. Robert Goddard, who is considered the father of modern rockets. By the late 1930s, Goddard had tested a liquid propellant rocket — the rocket used vanes or fins near the thrust nozzle to help initial launch guidance and a gyro control for flight over the desert in New Mexico. The German scientist, Wernher von Braun’s V-2 rocket borrowed Goddard’s basic design for refinement and increased its scale for later mass productionUsed by the German military towards the end of World War II, V-2 or Aggreat-4 ( A-4) was successfully launched in 1942, making it the first human made object to enter outer space.

The V-2 was a sophisticated liquid propellant, single stage rocket, which had a top speed of 5,760 km/h (3,580 mph) and could reach an altitude of 206km (128 miles.) At the end of the war, the Americans, British and Russians took possession of all remaining V-2 rockets, along with German engineers, technicians and scientists working on the program. A high priority was placed on researching its capabilities, re-engineering and developing it for national security.

— The Paul Allen Flying Heritage Museum, located at Paine Field, Everett, WA, recently added an authentic V2 rocket for display.

American scientists James Van Allen and Sydney Chapman were able to convince the U.S. Government of the scientific value for launching rockets carrying satellites into space. A scientific effort in the early 1950s was begun, with the plan to launch American satellites by 1957 or 1958. The Russians surprised the World by launching the first satellite into orbit in 1957 named Sputnik.

First photograph from space & of the Earth, from a V-2 rocket in 1946 byU.S scientist.
First photograph from space & of the Earth in 1946, from a V-2 rocket at an altitude of 65 miles, by U.S. scientist. Photo: courtesy of U.S. Army
A modified V-2 rocket being launch on July 24, 1950. General Electric Company was prime contractor for the launch, Douglas Aircraft Company manufactured the second stage of the rocket & Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) had major rocket design roles & test instrumentation. This was the first launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
A modified V-2 rocket being launch on July 24, 1950. General Electric Company was prime contractor for the launch, Douglas Aircraft Company manufactured the second stage of the rocket & the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) had major rocket design roles & test instrumentation. This was the first launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Photo: courtesy of NASA/U.S. Army
Most major space portals or rocket launch site are located next to oceans or remote location to limit legal liability in case of failed launch. It's estimated 10 % of rocket launches end in failure. Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©
Most major space portals and rocket launch sites are located next to oceans or remote locations to limit legal liability in case of a failed launch. It’s estimated 8 % of rocket launches end in failure. Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©
What Goes Up Must Come Down.

Rocket launch programs have always had to contend with Newton’s law of gravity, today, these programs face new challenges with liability laws, to protect individuals and property from unexpected accidents.

Case Study:  The first time a major issue of liability occurred was in 1962, on a street within Manitowoc, Wisconsin. Apparently, a three-kilogram metal artifact from the Russian’s 1960, Sputnik 4 satellite launch, reentered the atmosphere unannounced, over an unsuspecting Midwest. The Russian’s denied it was theirs, fearing liability under international law. This event, helped set in motion, the 1963 Declaration on Legal Principals Governing the Activities of State in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space. As an international agreement, it puts forth the responsibility to the State which launches or engages the launching of objects into space as internationally responsible for damages caused on Earth. In 1967, the agreement was slightly modified and was titled “Outer Space Treaty 1967.” 

A photo illustration of space debris from a low Earth orbit reentering the atmosphere over a city. Earth has water covering 70% of its surface — when attempts fail to guide space debris towards open oceans, the chance for these falling objects to hit a populated area increase. Space Law sets the liability for damages caused by the space debris to the nation or agency responsible responsible to its original rocket launch.
A photo illustration of space debris from a low Earth orbit reentering the atmosphere over a city. Earth has water covering 70% of its surface — when attempts fail to guide space debris towards open oceans, the chance for these falling objects to hit a populated area increase. Space Law sets the liability for damages caused by the space debris to the nation or agency responsible for its original rocket launch.

By 1984, the United Nations General Assembly, had adopted five sets of legal principles governing international law and cooperation in space activities. The principles include the following agreements and conventions.“Outer Space Treaty” – the use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies (1967 – resolution 2222.) “Rescue Agreement” – the  agreement to rescue Astronauts/Cosmonauts, the Return of Astronauts/Cosmonauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Space (1968 – resolution 2345.) “Liability Convention” – the Convention on International Liability for Damaged Caused by Space Objects (1972 – resolution 2777.) “Registration Convention” – the registration of  Objects Launched into Outer Space (1975 – resolution 3235.) “Moon Agreement” – the agreement Governing the Activities of  States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (1979 – resolution 34/68.)

Because so many languages are involved with these international agreements, terms used in Space Law, often gets lost in translation. There are linguistic limitations and general lack of necessary definitions to adequately cover specific space concepts and activities using Space Law. Each Nation has its own agenda and vision concerning the development of space — then throw in multinational companies and things get really diluted when it comes to working out agreements regarding laws governing space.

Although most large "space junk" is monitored and efforts are made for reentry over uninhabited areas, satellites or sections of rockets can potentially fall anywhere.
Although most large “space debris” is monitored and great efforts are made for reentry to take place over uninhabited areas – satellites or sections of rockets can potentially fall anywhere.
Cuba Gives A New Meaning To A Cash Cow.

Case Study:  In November of 1960, the second stage of a U.S. A Thor rocket fell back to Earth and killed a cow grazing in Eastern Cuba. The final settlement required the U.S. Government to pay Cuba $2 million dollars in compensation — creating the world’s first “Cuban Cash Cow.”

Dramatic Rocket Launch Failures Associated With Space Exploration.

It’s estimated since the 1950s, of the nearly 8,000 rockets launched for space related missions, 8 % of rocket launches ended in failure (2012 spacelaunchreport.com.) The resulting anomalies have cost the lives of hundreds of astronauts, cosmonauts and civilians along with billions of dollars in losses. Here’s an abbreviated list of dramatic and tragic events associated with rocket launch failures. WA Okang SatDshBP_e1103

Vanguard TV3, December 9, 1957 launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida (U.S.) was the first U.S. attempt at sending a satellite into orbit.  A first event of its kind to use a live televised broadcast, which ended by witnessing Vanguard’s explosive failure. Unfortunately this launch was a rushed reaction to the Soviet Union’s surprise success of launching the world’s first satellite, Sputnik, on October 23, 1957.

Vostok rocket, March 18, 1980, launched from Plesetsk, Russia (the world’s busiest spaceport). While being refueled the rocket exploded on the launch pad, killing 50, mostly young soldiers. (Source: New York Times article, published September 28, 1989)

Challenger STS-51-L Space Shuttle disaster, January 28, 1986, launched from Kennedy Space Center (U.S.) marked the first U.S. in-flight fatalities. After only 73 seconds from lift-off, faulty O-ring seals failed, releasing hot gases from the solid propellant rocket booster (SRB), which led to a catastrophic failure. Seven crew members were lost, including Christy McAullife,  selected by NASA’s Teacher in Space Program. McAullife was the first civilian to be trained as an astronaut — she would have been the first civilian to enter space, but tragically, the flight ended a short distance before reaching the edge of space. Recovery efforts for Challenger were the most expensive of any rocket launch disaster to date.

Long Mark 3B rocket launch, payload: American communication satellite, built by Space Systems Loral – February 14, 1996 in Xichang (China) – two seconds into launch, rocket pitched over just after clearing the launch tower and accelerated  horizontally a few hundred feet off the ground, before hitting a hill 22 seconds into its flight. The rocket slammed into a hillside exploding in a fireball above a nearby town, it’s estimated at least 100 people died in the resulting aftermath. Click on this link to read the complete eyewitness story. →    Disaster at Xichang | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine

Delta 2, rocket launch – January 1997, Cape Canaveral (U.S.) – this rocket carried a new GPS satellite and ends in a spectacular explosion. Video link included to show examples of  worst case scenario of a rocket exploding only seconds after launch (note brightly burning rocket propellant cascading to the ground is known as “firebrand”.)  The short video has an interview with Chester Whitehair, former VP of Space Launch Operations Aerospace Corporation, who describes how the burning debris and toxic hydrochloric gas cloud fell into the Atlantic Ocean from the rocket explosion. Rocket launch sites and Spaceports are geographically chosen to mitigate rocket launch accidents . Click on this video link to see the rocket mishap. →    US rocket disasters – YouTube

Titan 4, rocket launch – August 1998, Cape Canaveral (U.S.) the last launch of a Titan rocket – with a military, top-secret satellite payload, was the most expensive rocket disaster to date – estimated loss of $ 1.3 Billion dollars.

VLS-3 rocket, launch  – August 2003, Alcantara (Brazil) – rocket exploded on the launch pad when the rocket booster was accidentally initiated during test 72 hours before its scheduled launch. Reports of at least 21 people were killed at the site.

World_spaceport-InterAf_Map

Global location, GPS coordinates & rocket debris fields of major Spaceports & launch sites. ( Click on map to enlarge)
Quiz ??? – Do you see any similarities in the geographic locations used for these launch sites? What advantages do these locations have regarding “Space Law?” For most rocket launches, which site has the greatest geographic advantage & why; which has the least advantage & why?
Location, Location, Location Benefits Rocket Launch Sites.

If you zoom into the above World map with its rocket launch sites, you’ll notice all the locations gravitate toward remote regions. Another feature most Spaceports share is large bodies of water located to the east, with the exception of the U.S. Vandenberg site. Less likely hood of people or property being harmed by a rocket which could experience a catastrophic failure is why oceans make a great safety barrier.  The legal liability for a launch vehicle is why all ships and aircraft are restricted from being anywhere near a rocket’s flight path. The rocket debris fields are marked with red highlights, this fallen debris is a highly toxic form of unspent fuel and oxidizers.

Most rockets are launched towards an easterly direction due to the Earth’s eastern rotation, which aids the rocket with extra momentum. An exception for an east directional launch is Vandenberg site in California, which launches most of its rockets south for polar orbits used by communication and mapping satellites.

Launching rockets closer to the equator gives a launch vehicle one more advantage — extra velocity gained from the Earth’s rotation near its equator. At the equator, our planet spins at a speed of 1675 kph (1040 mph,) compared to a spot near the Arctic Circle, which moves at a slower, 736 kph (457 mph.) Even the smallest advantage gained in velocity means a rocket requires less fuel to reach “escape velocity.” This fuel savings translates to a lighter launch vehicle, making the critical transition of leaving Earth’s gravitational field quicker.

The next edition of the Space Law series includes:
Potential Minefield Effects From Space Debris And The Regulatory Laws To Help Clean It Up.
Will Asteroid Mining Become The Next Big Gold Rush And What Laws Will Keep The Frontier Order?
Links And Resources For Space Law.

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International space law is emerging from its infancy, attempting to more clearly define itself from a nebulous amalgam of; agreements, amendments, codes, rules, regulations, jurisdictions, treaties and non-binding measures. There exists today, enough legal framework for commercial interest to move cautiously towards developing outer space. However, with the unforeseen variables & dynamics of space activities, exceptions will be made and rules will be stretched, if not broken to accommodate necessity, justification or exculpation. ~

Surprise space mission featured videos: Click → Boards of Canada – Dawn Chorus – YouTube   

→     Boards of Canada – Music is Math (HD)

→     Boards of Canada – Gemini – Fan Video on Vimeo
WA Okang SatDshBP_e1103
Links And Resources For Space Law.

The Space Review: International space law and commercial space activities: the rules do apply

Outlook on Space Law Over the Next 30 Years: Essays Published for the 30th … – Google Books

“SPACE FOR DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISMS – DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISM” by Frans G. von der Dunk

Asteroid mining: US company looks to space for precious metal | Science | The Guardian

Planetary Resources – The Asteroid Mining Company – News

5 of the Worst Space Launch Failures | Wired Science | Wired.com

Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment

NASA Orbital Debris FAQs

‎orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/library/IAR_95_Document.pdf

A Minefield in Earth Orbit: How Space Debris Is Spinning Out of Control [Interactive]: Scientific American

SpaceX signs lease agreement at spaceport to test reusable rocket – latimes.com

Earth’s rotation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Space Review: Spacecraft stats and insights

Space Launch Report

V-2 rocket – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Billionaire Paul Allen gets V-2 rocket for aviation museum near Seattle – Science

Germany conducts first successful V-2 rocket test — History.com This Day in History — 10/3/1942

Part 1 of 2 editions – please check back soon for the conclusion of this essay. 
Photo illustration by: David Johanson Vasquez, using a NASA photo of Skylab.

Photo illustration of space debris by: David Johanson Vasquez, using a NASA photo of Skylab.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nG9LUSf_qK8 

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Reflecting on the 36th Anniversary of Mount Saint Helens Eruption

Observing the 33rd anniversary of Mount Saint Helens

Observing the 33rd anniversary of the Mount Saint Helens eruption, which had occurred on Sunday 18th of May 1980 at 8:32 a.m. on a clear sunny morning.

 

Photo essay by: David A Johanson © All Rights

Flying off from Seattle to see family in San Francisco, I peered out my window to catch a sunrise falling on the north face of Mt. Saint Helens. In the photograph, a fresh plume of ash is seen spewing near the center of the crater after some renewed volcanic activity. Spirit Lake, partially frozen in the foreground sits at the base of an active volcano. I’m humbled every time I see this famous stratovolcano, because of a close encounter I nearly had with it on the weekend it violently erupted.

After graduating from college, I received a job offer from KING Broadcasting’s KREM TV, in Spokane. While working at the station, Mount Saint Helens dramatically awoke, focusing the world’s media attention on her mysterious activity. The volcano’s rumblings increased sharply over a few weeks and was building momentum, just before I was planning a weekend visit to Seattle to stay with friends. Having access to the station’s motion picture cameras, I made preparations to use part of the weekend for filming Spirit Lake, which sat under the shadow of the volcano. A feisty character, named Harry R. Truman, operated a lodge on the lake and I imagined it would be a great human-interest story to interview him in regards to all the Mountain’s activity.

The art director at the TV station, Bob Takeshita, was a good friend, so we made plans to work on the project together. The weekend arrived for going to Seattle, and the weather had cleared, making it ideal for filming at Spirit Lake. To my disappointment, the art director informed me his wife didn’t want him to go that weekend. Since the plan was for us to work as a team, I let him know, I wasn’t going to hall all the camera gear up the mountain by myself—so we would have to postpone the shoot for another time.

Arriving back in Seattle, I was still disheartened by not going to film at Spirit Lake with such ideal weather. That night, I had this strange dream of being back in Spokane, where I was at my favorite lookout point, getting ready to take some photographic panoramas of the skyline. As I put the camera on the tripod, a clear spring sky turned suddenly dark. It was all vivid and so strange, but what made it even more surreal is… it began snowing gray powder flakes in the warm air as the ground disappeared underneath deposits of gray powder dust. Waking up in the morning I though how odd that dream was from the night before, but soon forgot about it as I had a busy day ahead of me.

As fate would have it, the following morning on May 18, 1980, Mt. Saint Helen’s, erupted with the force of several atomic bombs… burying my intended interviewee, Harry Truman and his lodge under hundreds of feet of volcanic debris. And the dream I had, was a premonition of ash from the eruption, which did make it to Spokane and deposited a blanket of ash, just as I had seen. Interestingly, no geologist or scientist had predicted if an eruption did occur, the result would be…a massive cloud of ash, blanketing hundreds of square miles in gray ash.  It was several days before I could get back to KREM TV, because the mountain passes were closed due to hazardous driving conditions caused from falling ash, which deposited ash on 11 states and parts of western Canada.

I never got a chance to thank my friend’s wife for not allowing him to go with me on that fateful weekend. If I get over to the Spokane area again, I’m going to look my friend up and bring his wife a belated bouquet of flowers for inadvertently saving our lives. ~

Video of Mount St. Helens Eruption

usda Forest Services Video

Interviews with Harry Truman at Spirit Lake

Computer animated video of Mount St. Helens Eruption

Click on the link bellow to view the largest volcanic eruption recorded in history

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ARBjmoHAII

Kradatoa – the largest volcanic eruption recorded in history,

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What Chance Will America’s Youth Have In A Changing Global Economy?

 

 The first STEM EXPO Fair held at Edmonds School District's new STEM Magnet School at MountLake Terrace HS in Washington State. The student is caring a rocket, which was used in a group presentation at the fair.
The first STEM EXPO Fair held at Edmonds School District’s new STEM Magnet School at MountLake Terrace HS in Washington State. A rocket club student holds a rocket, which was used earlier in a group presentation at the fair.
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Multimedia eLearning program by: David Anthony Johanson © All Rights

The author is a multimedia specialist, CTE instructor and a former Boeing scientific photographer. For an alternative graphic view of this program, please visit: https://sciencetechtablet.wordpress.com/tag/e-learning/

A big question asked by concerned people and industry leaders across the Nation is waiting for an answer… How will current and future generations stay competitive in an increasingly, complex, global economy? A high-performance education program involving a blend of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) — is promising solutions as its building momentum within post-secondary and kindergarten-through-grade 12 (K-12) education

STEM Robotics team project is demonstrated for an enthusiastic audience of all ages.
The STEM Robotics team project is demonstrated to an enthusiastic audience of all ages.

The dynamic learning created from STEM’s project based curriculum is contagious for a growing number of students. And the program’s appeal is spreading to parents, public schools and corporate sponsors who are looking for ways to get involved in supporting technology learning through secondary education. Even the U.S. Congress solidly supports the critical initiatives driving STEM Education, which is primarily funded through the National Science Foundation (NSF.)

STEM Robotics team in action with their project
Enthusiasm and excitement were experienced by those viewing students’ technology project presentations.

A Basic Overview Of A STEM Magnet Program

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By the 21st century, digital technology had transformed global manufacturing and commerce by accelerating STEM related industries. The skill-sets, training and knowledge of entry-level applicants was noticeably falling behind. Standards for learning, used in our public educational system, were now becoming outdated. Nationally, educators needed a new, comprehensive learning approach to inspire, explore and motivate students’ achievement in the global dynamics of STEM.

Today, the Nation’s public schools place greater emphasis on introducing STEM related content to both teachers and students, starting as early as grade school. This program strategy allows all students of varied backgrounds, ethnicities and socioeconomic levels, gain access to learning projects associated with science and technology. By presenting young students with thoughtful STEM lesson plans, they are more likely to engage in the discovery process of even the most technical subject matters. Entering middle school, students are learning accelerated levels of science and technology content, which helps them decide if they wish to enroll in a high school, offering a focused curriculum. The STEM Magnet Program pulls in a diversified population of students, engaged and motivated by their earliest learning experiences.STEM_Fair_ESD_BPP_aq_68

 Evolution And Development Of STEM Education

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Richard Blais, Chairman of the technology department for the Shenendehowa Central School District in Upstate New York, developed a curriculum in 1986, to support students’ interest in studying engineering. To enable enthusiasm and confidence in students, core courses included; pre-engineering and digital electronics, infused with energetic and interactive learning environments. The curriculum’s proven a success, attracted philanthropist, Richard Liebich, who partnered with Blais to set up, Project Lead the Way (PLTW.) 

Greg Schwab - Principal, Mountlake Terrace High School, greets students at the STEM EXPO Fair
Greg Schwab – Principal, Mountlake Terrace High School, greets students at the STEM EXPO Fair
Dr. Nick Brossoit Superintendent, Edmonds School District
Dr. Nick Brossoit Superintendent, Edmonds School District

Within 10 years of PLTW’s founding, a dozen high schools in New York State adopted the program. Within the next few years high schools in 30 states were using PLTW’s “Pathway to Engineering Program.” Soon after, PLTW was a major national program, which used innovative activities of project and problem-based assignments. Further adding to PLTW’s momentum and success was the enthusiastic support corporations showed by endorsing and contributing financial resources towards the program.  

Mark Madison  Director, Career & Technical Education
Mark Madison
Director, Career & Technical Education for Edmonds SD

STEM Education incorporated many successful PLTW learning strategies and programs. PLTW is still active in high schools today and plays an active role in STEM Education.

STEM EXPO Keynote Speaker - Dr. Elaine Scott Director of Science & Technology Program UW Bothell
STEM EXPO Keynote Speaker – Dr. Elaine Scott, Director of Science & Technology Program, UW Bothell 

Mark Sanders’, 2009 STEMmania article in The Technology Teacher, cites the STEM acronym first being used in the 1990’s. The National Science Foundation (NSF) started using “SMET” as a reference for “science, mathematics, engineering and technology.” A department, program officer complained “SMET” sounded similar to “smut,” so “STEM” became the suitable replacement. It would take more than a decade for the public to recognize STEM’s referenced meaning.

The support  and enthusiasm for STEM Education is displayed by an impressive turnout for the District's first STEM EXPO Fair.
The support and enthusiasm for STEM Education is displayed by an impressive turnout for the District’s first STEM EXPO Fair.

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The Challenge Of Integrative Education: Transcending Barriers And Perceived Domains Found Within Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematic Education

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Perhaps the greatest test for a STEM Magnet Program will involve achieving the goal, of course/subject integration. As a career, technical and education (CTE) instructor, I’ve heard this complaint more than any other from students — “why do I have to learn this subject, it doesn’t relate to other things I’m learning or anything I’ll ever need to know!?” In truth, all subjects and courses taught in school share dynamic connections, we as educators need to do more in helping students see their associations.    STEM_Fair_ESD_BPP_ae_24Core sciences and engineering education programs have traditionally maintained strict disciplinary lines, known as silos. This shortsighted disconnect is generally not found in highly competitive industries, where the imperative is to find solutions which will “payoff” in the shortest amount of time. Industry’s necessity to cut through the process, for realizing greater profits is an important lesson plan for all STEM Programs. The realized profit for a student is — being taught how to quickly adapt new, comprehensive and sometimes-unconventional learning strategies to gain a competitive advantage.  STEM_Fair_ESD_BPP_ae_18

STEM Expo Robotics team takes a break from their demonstration for a group photo. Teamwork builds confidence and trust in the students themselves as well as other team members.
The STEM Expo Robotics team takes a break from their demonstration for a group photo. Teamwork builds confidence and trust in the students themselves, as well as other team members.

Benefits/Advantages For Both Students And The Schools They Attend

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Developing a STEM magnet program helps a school district align its resources towards assisting students preparing for college and universities, which specialize in related technical studies. An additional advantage the program offers a student pursuing a post secondary education is — an institution will most likely accept the applicant’s enrollment request based on the knowledge and technical skills achieved through a STEM Magnet Program.

STEM_Fair_ESD_BPP_87   STEM_Fair_ESD_BPP_ac_23  U.S. industries have increasingly cited the lack of qualified technical applicants they need as a reason not to hire more employees. The shortage of people with necessary STEM skills has motivated corporations to contribute their resources of funding, mentoring and sponsorship towards public education’s technology learning programs.

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Community exhibitors at the STEM EXPO Fair include corporate sponsors of STEM education.
Community exhibitors at the STEM EXPO Fair include corporate sponsors of STEM education.

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Aerospace giant Boeing is a big sponsor of the STEM Magnet Program.
Aerospace giant Boeing is a big sponsor of the STEM Magnet Program.

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Parents and community groups have eagerly supported STEM programs. Student’s parents are critical stakeholders who quickly realized the impact the program was having  — seeing impressive scholastic and attitude improvements with their children.

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STEM Education Uses Progressive Learning Strategies To Develop Critical Learning And Self-Discipline Within a Student 

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As STEM Education attempts to accelerate student development by modifying the standard teacher-centered classroom with more independent learning. The curriculum encourages project-based learning, problem solving and discovery, which empower the students to engage their cognitive skills to find solutions. This form of learning develops greater self-confidence in students and it opens channels among the students themselves to interact thru peer-to-peer learning. These spontaneous collaborative activities are self-organized learning events and they naturally promote leadership within the group. It has been well documented, knowledge transferred from experience in peer-to-peer activities are highly successful forms of learning.

Students enrolled in STEM Programs are encouraged to engage and connect with others by refining their presentation skills.
Students enrolled in STEM Programs are encouraged to engage and connect with others by refining their presentation skills.
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Tangible Returns In Personal Development Through Teamwork And Leadership

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Over the past five years I’ve had the opportunity to teach in a variety of classroom environments using a CTE curriculum. It’s remarkable seeing how engaged students are with learning their STEM subject matter. These same students are much more likely to openly contribute and share their ideas in a classroom discussion using the critical thinking skills they’ve learned to develop.

Most often, the STEM classes are more like being in a college environment, requiring a minimum amount of classroom management, as the students are self-motivated to complete their assignments and move on to the next project. Generally, the level of leadership development and volunteerism is noticeably higher in STEM classes due to the program’s emphasis on teamwork, self-confidence and academic achievement. These personal development qualities are valuable assets for students when applying for college admission and later — when entering the career of their choice.

Craig DeVine - pre-engineering instructor, talks with his students near a 3-D printer
Craig DeVine – pre-engineering instructor, talks with his students near a 3-D printer

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Improving Forecast For Employment Opportunities Using STEM Education

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As STEM Magnet Schools continue to place their graduates into secondary education, followed by the students’ successful careers in STEM related industries — STEM Education will help transform the American education landscape. If STEM Education can sustain its momentum, the future horizon looks bright for our youth to achieve economic opportunities on a global leveled playing field.

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Entrance to Mountlake Terrace High School -Edmonds School District's first STEM Magnet School
Entrance to Mountlake Terrace High School -Edmonds School District’s first STEM Magnet School

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STEM Education Terms & Definitions

CTE = Career Technical Education NSF = National Science Foundation PD&I = pedagogy referring to – purposeful design and inquiry PLTW = Project Lead The Way STEM = Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics  STEM Magnet School = A school with a concentration of STEM classes, which attracts students throughout a school district interested in enrolling in a STEM Program

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STEM Education Links

http://www.stemedcoalition.org/ Home The Future of Education / The history of STEM education in America. Handy infographic! What is STEM Education? PLTW | OUR HISTORY PLTW | STEM Education Curriculum for Middle and High Schools http://esdstem.pbworks.com/f/TTT%2BSTEM%2BArticle_1.pdf Home PBS Teachers | STEM Education Resource Center nsf.gov – National Science Foundation – US National Science Foundation (NSF) Siemens STEM Academy – STEM Education Has Arrived… Start Small, But Dream Big http://www.stemeducation.com/ STEM Resources | Early STEM Program Still Going Strong – STEM Education (usnews.com) What STEM Is–and Why We Care – STEM Education (usnews.com) 

https://education.uky.edu/STEM/sites/education.uky.edu.STEM/files/SEM%20604_syllabus_%20History%20of%20STEM%20Ed.pdf Historical Perspectives on STEM Education in Arkansas | Arkansas STEM Coalition http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42642.pdf STEM ES Home – STEM ES FAQs NSTA :: News Story 

Reflections From A Future Hawaii. Can A Tropical Paradise Become A Portal To Deep Space?

Photo-illustration: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

Honolulu, Hawaii 2054: Launch gateway to L4 & L5 space stations, L2 Lunar Hub and the Mars Frontier. Illuminated aircraft and monorail tubes bring early commuters into the City as twilight transitions to dawn.

Multimedia essay by: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

Waikiki, on Hawaii’s Island of Oahu is a Cross Roads of the World. The allure of this tropical city attracts millions of vacationing pilgrims from across the globe. Steady infusion of foreign and domestic investment creates a dynamic and often futuristic looking metropolis.

Digital display featured at the Galleria.

Digital display featured at the Galleria.

On my last visit to Waikiki in November, I came across an ultramodern, duty-free, fashion and clothing store located on the main boulevard. Entering this multiplex shopping site felt like being on the sci-fi movie sets for Minority Report or Blade Runner. My son-in-law commented as he left the “Galleria” — “it was a sensory overload experience,” so he was headed back to the hotel to sleep it off. Hawa_Futr_BPP_121116_a38

A hall portal view to Waikiki's Galleria.

A hall portal view to Waikiki’s Galleria.

The experience of entering the Galleria is exciting and dynamic for those who are ready for such an encounter.

Honolulu’s Dynamic Style of Architecture

The surrounding city of Honolulu has a vibrant range of architectural styles and its own unique Hawaiian form. Within Waikiki, new architecture blends a modern and Japanese style.

An example of modern  Hawaiian Style Architecture.

An example of modern Hawaiian Style Architecture.

From our hotel room we could see a dynamic Honolulu panorama of the city, which suggested the idea of a — reflection of the future. Waikiki_Pano_BPP_ewp222 Massive walls of electronic  projection frame the entry environment in Waikiki's Galleria.

The Sky Is No Longer The Limit For Digital Displays

Massive walls of electronic projection frame the entry environment in Waikiki’s Galleria.  Marketing and advertising have embraced electronics LED’s to capture our attention and stimulate the senses. We can expect the future will sustain sensory overload for marketing of products, services and ideas on a global scale. Hawa11_121118_BPP_e224

The experience of entering the Galleria is exciting and dynamic for those who are ready for such an encounter. Multimedia environments are becoming more common in the 21st Century. As natural environments are increasingly altered or replaced by new ones, projections of “paradise lost” will attempt to fill the expanding void. Pearl_Harb_VC_BPP__2a1426

A Scenario For Things To Come

With automation and remote-control technology accelerating into all professions and industry,  getting safely from point-A-to-point-B becomes seamless with advanced autopilot avionics used in transportation operations — World travel now becomes even more assessable and affordable. A futuristic Boeing pilotless passenger jet with personal projection systems ( PPS). A futuristic Boeing pilotless passenger jet with personal projection systems ( PPS) as it nears the Island of Oahu.

South Point (Ka Lae) – Naalehu, Big Island, Hawaii +18° 54′ 39.96″, -155° 40′ 52.00″ “The Pan Pacific Launch Site” Gateway To Lunar And Deep Space Exploration

As international space exploration matures, greater consortiums and partnerships develop between countries and corporations for creating space operations staging points near Earth’s orbit. The Lagrangian Points: of L2, L4 and L5 are  locations relatively close to Earth, which provide stable orbits for building hubs to assist in lunar, deep-space and asteroid exploratory missions.

The Big Island of Hawaii's South Point ( Ka Lae) is in the neighborhood of 1,400 miles from the Equator, which requires less fuel for launching rockets into orbit. On the right, a rocket has lifted off from the Pan Pacific Launch Site, on its journey to an international L2 Lunar Hub.

The Big Island of Hawaii’s South Point ( Ka Lae) is in the neighborhood of 1,400 miles from the Equator, which requires less fuel for launching rockets into orbit. On the right, SpaceX rocket has lifted off from the Pan Pacific Launch Site, on its journey to an international L2 Lunar Hub. – Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Space view looking back towards Hawaii's "Pan Pacific Launch Site." - Photo David Johanson Vasquez ©

Space view looking back towards Hawaii’s “Pan Pacific Launch Site.” – Photo David Johanson Vasquez ©

Photo courtesy of NASA

Photo courtesy of NASA

Locations of previous NASA Apollo Manned landing sites. Photo illustration courtesy of NASA.

Locations of previous NASA Apollo Manned landing sites. Photo illustration courtesy of NASA. Some in Congress are considering declaring these sites as “National Parks,” to protect them from future treasure hunters.

Section view of International L2 Lunar Hub in stable orbit .

Section view of International L2 Lunar Hub in stable platform orbit. Prime contracting consortium: Boeing, Mitsubishi HI, AviChina, Hindustan Aeronautics and ST Engineering.

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"Asteroid 1" - artist concept of asteroid mining mission to an Earth approaching asteroid.NASA sponsored a study on space manufacturing held at Ames Research Center (ARC) June1977, commissioned this painting by - Denise Watt.

“Asteroid 1” – artist concept of asteroid mining mission to an Earth approaching asteroid.
NASA sponsored a study on space manufacturing held at Ames Research Center (ARC) June 1977, commissioned painting by – Denise Watt.

Post cards from the Martian Frontier,— Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Digital post cards from the Martian Frontier.
— Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez ©

Digital post cards from Mars - mining operations on the "Red Planet."  — Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights.

Digital post cards from the Martian Frontier — mining operations during sunset on the”Red Planet.” — Photo illustration: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights. 

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Links to the University of Hawaii Manoa Engineering Program’s Satellite Project. UH is the only university to have built its own satellite, which will soon be launched. Click on the link below. ↓

University of Hawaii aims to become the first university with satellite launch capability | Malamalama, The Magazine of the University of Hawai’i System

http://www.space.com/20849-hawaii-small-satellite-launch.html

University of Hawaii innovation article about UH College of Engineering Satellite Program –  by: Jolyn Okimoto Rosa. Click on the link below. ↓

http://www.universityofhawaiiinnovation.com/features/readying-for-liftoff/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHdNSS85c5M    

Click on the above link to see a glimpse of the future. Make sure to fill your entire screen with the video.

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An Unusual Encounter With A Waikiki Santa Clause.

Perhaps because it was this Santa's timing or because of the location he chose, that it was too surreal for children to be eager to meet him.  Photo: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

Perhaps it was this Santa’s timing or because of the location he chose, which was just too surreal for children to be eager to meet him. Photo: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

Photos & Poem by: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights Reserved

Twas a month before Christmas, when all throughout the tropical beach, Not a creature was stirring not even a mouse.

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When out near the palm trees there arose such a clatter, I sprang from my beach towel, camera in hand, to photograph the matter.

A postmodern cellphone Santa strolls down a section of Waikiki.  Photo: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

A postmodern cellphone Santa strolls down a section of Waikiki. Photo: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

The bright sun reflecting off the ocean and sand, Gave luster of mid-day to objects on land. When, what to my wondering eyes should appear on Waikiki, But Santa Clause with a cellphone in hand, and stunned sun bathers nearby, trying to understand why.

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Santa appears to be looking for his lost reindeer.Photo: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

Santa appears to be looking for his lost reindeer.
Photo: David Johanson Vasquez © All Rights

Mele Kalikimaka!

May all your holiday gatherings be happy, warm and full of good cheer throughout next year!

Happy New Years!

This experience happened on my adventure to Oahu, Hawaii, on Waikiki Beach in November 2012. I adapted Clement Clare Moore’s (1799 – 1863)  classic poem — Twas the night before Christmas